Figure 3 – Pipeline of Commercial facilities since 2010 by capture capacity (Mtpa)
*2021 capacities adjusted to reflect this year’s change to how capacity tonnages are interpreted, to facilitate comparison with 2022 figures.
Figure 3 shows the increase in the capacity of CCS projects from 2010 until September 2022 (the final bar represents the project development status as of mid-September 2022). In 2022, the Institute has formally adopted a revised approach to estimating total CCS capacity (see below).
Figure 4 – Commercial CCS Facilities by number and total CO2 capture capacity (mid-September 2022)
|OPERATIONAL||IN CONSTRUCTION||ADVANCED DEVELOPMENT||EARLY DEVELOPMENT||OPERATION SUSPENDED||TOTAL|
|NUMBER OF FACILITIES||30||11||78||75||2||196|
The facility counts in Figure 4 also include transport and storage projects that do not include capture. These provide essential infrastructure for the industry to develop. As explained in the notes below, they do not contribute to capture capacity tonnage figures, to avoid double-counting of project capacities.
Notable project developments in the 12 months since the last Global Status report include:
- Drax Power Station in the UK announced the world’s single largest bioenergy with CCS (BECCS) project, with a world-scale 8.0 Mtpa capacity across two units.
- The Klemetsrud Waste-to-Energy CCS project in Norway moved to In Construction, having secured funding. This is the first commercial-scale CCS project applied to a waste-to-energy facility.
- Glacier CCS Project – capture technology firm, Entropy, commissioned a CO2 capture facility on a natural gas-fired reciprocating engine, the first of its kind at commercial scale and an important milestone given the importance of future capture from natural gas combustion streams worldwide.
- Air Products announced its blue hydrogen project in Louisiana, incorporating natural gas gasification technology.
- ORCA, the world’s first commercial direct air capture with carbon storage (DACCS) facility, was commissioned in Iceland. Its follow-up, the MAMMOTH project, was then announced.
- In Australia, the Bayu-Undan project by Santos has moved into Front End Engineering and Design (FEED). This project will capture CO2 from LNG production in Darwin and transport it via pipeline across the maritime border between Australia and Timor-Leste for offshore geological storage. A key feature of this project is repurposing an existing natural gas pipeline for CO2
- Occidental, in partnership with DACCS technology company Carbon Engineering, announced that construction will commence on a 500 ktpa direct air capture project in the Permian Basin in the US. The plant is said to be capable of scaling up to a 1 Mtpa capacity. This is in the context of Occidental’s stated plans to develop a fleet of 70 – 135 such facilities around the world by 2035.
MEASURING GLOBAL CCS CAPACITY BY CAPTURE CAPACITY
In prior years, most CCS projects were full-value chain. This means they tended to incorporate a single CO2 capture plant with its own dedicated CO2 compression, transport (usually pipeline) and storage systems. This meant that when describing the CO2 flow capacity (in tonnes per year) of these systems, the capacity of the capture plant, transport and storage systems were all aligned and operating as a single integrated system.
Today, CCS networks are becoming the predominant method of CCS deployment. CCS networks involve the use of shared transport and storage infrastructure. Some CCS-related developments, such as shipping projects, pipelines, or new storage facilities, do not involve CO2 capture at all, and handle CO2 captured by third parties.
If the CO2 flow capacities of these non-capture sites were counted in our statistics, there would potentially be a double-counting of global CCS capacity, as CO2 capacity would have already been included in our figures for capture plants upstream.
To avoid this problem, and ensure compatibility with our historical capacity statistics, only CO2 capture capacity will be included when determining global CCS system capacity (Mtpa). This is why project pipeline charts and figures now explicitly refer to ‘by capture capacity’, a change from the earlier title “Capacity of CCS facilities”.
Dedicated transport and/or storage projects will still be counted in total facility numbers, but will not contribute to global CCS system capacity. Facility counts can be somewhat arbitrary depending upon where the boundaries between transport and storage facilities in networks are drawn. Therefore, total system capacity is a better guide to the growth of the CCS sector than facility counts.
Note on the change to the interpretation of capacity tonnages in 2022
Historically, Global Status of CCS reports have reported tonnage in millions of tonnes per annum (Mtpa) based on the mean of the proponent-reported range of plant capacities. For example, if a proponent said it was targeting 1–1.3 Mtpa for its project, our reports have stated this as 1.15 Mtpa.
For projects in the Early Development stage, such ranges are often provided because there is uncertainty about the final specifications for the project. However, as projects progress to later stages and to construction, design capacities are typically locked into a single design capacity figure. This can make these ranges misleading, especially if the lower-end estimate is carried over from earlier project stages. The effect has been an overall understatement of CO2 capture capacity for the sector as a whole.
Beginning with this report, design capacities (upper end of ranges, if given) will be used. If a range is revised when moving from Early Development to Advanced Development, for example, the new capacity figure will be used and the facility entry updated accordingly. This may mean a given project’s stated capacity will be adjusted one or more times over the project life cycle.
One effect of this change is that the 2022 capture capacity in the project pipeline bar chart is not directly comparable with previous capture capacities. A portion of the increase from 2021 to 2022 is due to this measurement change, and a portion is due to growth in projects.
The project pipeline, in terms of facility numbers and capture capacity, is now at a record high. Since 2017, capture capacity has grown at a compound rate of over 34 per cent per annum.
Capture capacity (on a 2022 basis – see explanatory note above) in the pipeline has grown substantially in the past 12 months. This includes an impressive near-doubling of capture capacity in the Advanced Development state (projects undergoing Front End Engineering Design), from 49.4 Mtpa in 2021 to 97.6 Mtpa in 2022. Advanced Development means projects have received significant funds for engineering development, demonstrating a higher level of commitment to project development and a higher probability of moving to funding approval and construction, so this increase is significant for future project growth.
By facility count growth, the US continues to lead the way globally, with 34 new projects since 2021. Other leading countries in the past year include Canada (19 new projects), the UK (13), Norway (8), and Australia, the Netherlands and Iceland (6 each).
Figure 5: World Map of CCS Facilities at Various Stages of Development
Significant contributors to the growth of Early Development and Advanced Development pipelines are featured in the tables below.
Figure 6 – Significant contributors to Early Development growth in 2021–22
|FACILITY||COUNTRY||INDUSTRY||CAPTURE CAPACITY (MTPA)|
|THE ILLINOIS CLEAN FUELS PROJECT||US||Chemical Production||8.1|
|DRAX PROJECT BECCS||UK||Power Generation||8|
|MEDWAY HUB POWER STATIONS||UK||Power Generation||7.6|
|NET ZERO TEESSIDE – BP H2TEESSIDE||UK||Hydrogen Production||2|
|CYCLUS POWER GENERATION||US||Bioenergy||2|
|SOUTH EAST AUSTRALIA CARBON CAPTURE HUB||Australia||Natural Gas Processing||2|
Figure 7 – Significant contributors to Advanced Development growth in 2021–22
|FACILITY||COUNTRY||INDUSTRY||CAPTURE CAPACITY (MTPA)|
|BAYU-UNDAN CCS||Timor-Leste||Natural Gas Processing||10|
|DEER PARK ENERGY CENTRE CCS PROJECT||US||Power Generation||5|
|FEDERATED CO-OPERATIVES LIMITED||Canada||Ethanol Production||3|
|HUANENG LONGDONG ENERGY BASE CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE||China||Power Generation||1.5|
|FEDERATED CO-OPERATIVES LIMITED (REFINERY)||Canada||Oil Refining||1|
- This includes dedicated transport and storage projects.