Appendices

SECTION 6

6.1

CO2 Geological Storage

SUMMARY OF STORAGE MECHANISMS AND SECURITY

Four mechanisms exist for trapping CO2 in the subsurface. These mechanisms occur simultaneously upon injection but occur at different rates (Appendix figure 1). The relative contribution of each trapping mechanism – physical, residual, dissolution, mineralisation – changes with time and with a CO2 plume’s evolution. In the initial decades of a standard storage operation, physical trapping of free-phase CO2 is the primary trapping mechanism. Trapping of CO2 is strongly dependent on a site’s geology and local formation conditions (in-situ fluids, pressure, temperature). A portion of the CO2 plume may always remain in its free phase, but physical trapping is permanent when the geologic setting is stable and the CO2 plume is behaving in the reservoir as predicted.

 

Appendix figure 1: (Lower panel) The four trapping mechanisms operating in the subsurface to permanently store CO2. (Upper panel) Relative contribution of the four trapping mechanisms to permanent CO2 storage through time. Each mechanism operates simultaneously upon CO2 injection, but they occur at different rates.

 

Source: IPCC (2005)

 

PHYSICAL TRAPPING

Physical trapping occurs when buoyant, free-phase CO2 migrates into a body of rock that has been folded or faulted into a subsurface structure (or “trap”), which closes in three or four directions, and is contained below a low-permeability caprock (or “seal”) (see Appendix figure 2). Physical trapping is the same mechanism that traps hydrocarbons in the subsurface. Appendix figure 2 illustrates types of physical traps, including independent folded rock bodies and fault-dependent folds (which rely on closure against a fault for CO2 containment). In certain geological settings, physical trapping of CO2 occurs when a reservoir thins laterally and ultimately pinches-out. This is called a stratigraphic trap and is shown at “E” in Appendix figure 2.

 

Appendix figure 2: Schematic illustration of physical traps in the subsurface. Circles show “spill points” or fault dependency of structural closures. (A) Residual trapping can be the dominant trapping mechanism in gently dipping (that is, relatively flat-lying) rock bodies that do not exhibit structural closure. (B) A fault-independent folded rock body (anticline) can trap buoyant CO2 down to its “spill point”, below which CO2 will migrate out of the folded trap. (C) A fault-dependent (extensional fault) folded closure relies on the juxtaposition of sealing lithologies across the fault plane to prevent CO2 migration out of the trap. (D) A fault-dependent (contractional fault) folded closure relies on the juxtaposition of sealing lithologies across the fault plane to prevent CO2 migration out of the trap. (E) A stratigraphic trap relies on lateral changes in lithology (often lateral stratigraphic terminations or “pinch-outs”) to prevent CO2 migration out of the trap.

 

RESIDUAL TRAPPING

As a CO2 plume migrates through a reservoir, a portion of the plume will become trapped in the pore space and micro-scale reservoir heterogeneities by capillary forces (see Appendix figure 1). This process is called residual trapping and is controlled by the connectivity between pores, pore throat size, reservoir lithology, and pre-existing pore fluid chemistry. Pores in suitable reservoirs are typically <1 mm in size, well connected, and often make up 10–30 per cent of the bulk rock volume. Buoyancy forces of the CO2 plume are generally strong enough to overcome capillary forces in rock pores; however, along the margins and tail of a migrating plume, capillary forces are strong enough to “snap-off” small amounts of CO2 from the plume. These small amounts of CO2 are held permanently in pores against the surface of mineral grains. As the CO2 plume migrates away from the higher pressures at an injection well, residual trapping becomes increasingly important. Although residual trapping occurs at the micro-scale, the mass of CO2 trapped by this mechanism becomes significant at the reservoir scale (tens of metres of thickness and over an area of hundreds of square kilometres). Residual trapping contributes significantly to permanent storage in the early decades of a storage project.

 

DISSOLUTION TRAPPING

Dissolution trapping is a simple mechanism that occurs when injected CO2 comes into contact with a brine and the CO2 is able to dissolve into the brine solution. CO2 solubility is dependent on brine salinity and the temperature and pressure conditions of a reservoir. A CO2-saturated brine solution is denser than unsaturated brine and will sink in a reservoir. Dissolution trapping is considered permanently trapped. Over time, the CO2-saturated brine diffuses and disperses within the regional hydrogeological system of the basin. Dissolution trapping happens immediately on contact, but only becomes a significant contributor to storage at decadal to century timescales.

 

MINERAL TRAPPING

Mineral trapping occurs when injected CO2 chemically reacts with the minerals in a reservoir rock to form solid stable product minerals – often carbonate minerals. Mineral trapping is a permanent form of storage. Reaction rates and the mineralogy of product minerals depend on reservoir pressure, temperature, and reservoir mineralogy. Reservoirs targeted for CO2 storage often have favourable conditions for mineralisation. Mineral carbonation begins immediately upon injection, but is generally a minor component of a storage project until thousands of years have passed. At this timescale, in a conventional storage reservoir, the majority of CO2 will have already been permanently stored by the three mechanisms discussed above. However, injection into some rock formations (such as basalts) that contain reactive iron and magnesium minerals can result in rapid mineralisation of the majority of the CO2 in as quickly as two years (2).

 

CO2 STORAGE RESOURCE CATALOGUE

The CO2 Storage Resource Catalogue is a comprehensive global database of storage resources classified according to their commercial readiness using the 2017 Society of Petroleum Engineers Storage Resources Management System (SRMS). The purpose of the catalogue is to accelerate the commercial-scale development of CCS projects, build confidence in storage resource estimates, provide a consistent global picture of storage potential, and to establish the SRMS as a robust and authoritative reporting mechanism for storage resources. The catalogue is a six-year project funded by the Oil and Gas Climate Initiative, with technical assessments undertaken by the Global CCS Institute and Storegga. It is expected that by 2025, the catalogue will have assessed all countries across the globe.

The SRMS classifications are shown in Appendix figure 3. The Global CCS Institute in partnership with Storegga developed a series of guiding questions to help users classify their storage resources correctly. There are four major resource classes in the SRMS – these are Stored, Capacity, Contingent, and Prospective resources. Each class implies a different level of commercial maturity, with Prospective resources being the least mature and Stored being the most mature. Together, these make up the total storage resource base.

 

Appendix figure 3: The Storage Resource Management System classification system for CO2 storage resources. Follow the question flow chart (blue boxes) to guide your resource classification.

 

Source: OGCI et al. (2022)

 

The third annual assessment cycle (”Cycle 3” in OGCI et al. (2022)) was completed in March 2022 and added approximately 1,000 gigatonnes of CO2 (GtCO2) of storage resources to the global resource base, which stands at 13,954 GtCO2.

 

Appendix figure 4: Results from assessment cycle 3 of the CO2 Storage Resource Catalogue

 

Source: OGCI et al. (2022)

 

Assessment cycle 3 increased the number of storage sites to 852 and the number of assessed countries to 30. Appendix figure 4 shows the total discovered and undiscovered storage resource. Just over 577 Gt of storage resources (or 4.1 per cent of the total global resource base) have been discovered – meaning they have been proven with subsurface data such as a well and seismic surveys. Unfortunately, only a very small fraction of the total global storage resource base can be considered commercial resources – just 253 MtCO2 (or 0.002 per cent). Commercial resources must be ready for a storage operation to proceed and have:

  • a legal and regulatory framework that enables CO2 storage
  • a thorough technical assessment and understanding of the storage complex
  • a notional project development plan
  • no significant barrier causing delay in development of the project.

The order of magnitude difference between sub-commercial resources and commercial resources suggests a significant opportunity exists to explore, develop, and appraise storage resources globally (Appendix figure 5). The CO2 Storage Resource Catalogue can only use data in the public domain, so classifications in Appendix figure 5 likely underestimate resource commerciality because companies tend to keep their CCS project information private.

 

Appendix figure 5: CO2 storage resources (which are associated with storage projects) by country and SRMS maturity class

Source: OGCI et al. (2022)

 

In February 2022, Santos became the first company to officially claim ownership of (or “book”) CO2 storage resources using the SRMS system (4). It has booked 100 Mt of storage resources in the Cooper Basin of Australia ahead of its Moomba CCS Project, which has reached its final investment decision (FID). Santos booked nine Mt of 2P (proved plus probable) resource and 91 Mt of contingent (2C) resource.

 

 



REFERENCES

  1. IPCC. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage [Internet]. Cambridge; 2005 [cited 2022 Aug 31]. Available from: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/2018/03/srccs_wholereport-1.pdf
  2. CarbFix. CarbFix: How it works [Internet]. 2022 [cited 2022 Jul 14]. Available from: https://www.carbfix.com/how-it-works
  3. OGCI, Global CCS Institute, Storegga. CO2 Storage Resource Catalogue Cycle 3 Report [Internet]. 2022 Mar [cited 2022 Aug 29]. Available from: https://www.ogci.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/03/CSRC_Cycle_3_Main_Report_Final.pdf
  4. Santos. Positioned for Success: Annual Report 2021 [Internet]. 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 8]. Available from: https://www.santos.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/2021-Annual-Report.pdf
6.2

2022 Facilities List

FACILITY COUNTRY FACILITY STATUS OPERATIONAL DATE FACILITY INDUSTRY CAPTURE CAPACITY Mtpa CO2 FACILITY STORAGE CODE
TERRELL NATURAL GAS PROCESSING PLANT (FORMERLY VAL VERDE NATURAL GAS PLANTS) USA Operational 1972 Natural Gas Processing 0.5 Enhanced Oil Recovery
ENID FERTILIZER USA Operational 1982 Fertiliser Production 0.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery
SHUTE CREEK GAS PROCESSING PLANT USA Operational 1986 Natural Gas Processing 7 Enhanced Oil Recovery
MOL SZANK FIELD CO2 EOR Hungary Operational 1992 Natural Gas Processing 0.16 Enhanced Oil Recovery
SLEIPNER CO2 STORAGE Norway Operational 1996 Natural Gas Processing 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
GREAT PLAINS SYNFUELS PLANT AND WEYBURN-MIDALE USA Operational 2000 Synthetic Natural Gas 3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
CORE ENERGY CO2-EOR USA Operational 2003 Natural Gas Processing 0.35 Enhanced Oil Recovery
SNOHVIT CO2 STORAGE Norway Operational 2008 Natural Gas Processing 0.7 Dedicated Geological Storage
ARKALON CO2 COMPRESSION FACILITY USA Operational 2009 Ethanol Production 0.29 Enhanced Oil Recovery
CENTURY PLANT USA Operational 2010 Natural Gas Processing 5 Enhanced Oil Recovery
PETROBRAS SANTOS BASIN PRE-SALT OIL FIELD CCS Brazil Operational 2011 Natural Gas Processing 7 Enhanced Oil Recovery
BONANZA BIOENERGY CCUS EOR USA Operational 2012 Ethanol Production 0.1 Enhanced Oil Recovery
AIR PRODUCTS STEAM METHANE REFORMER USA Operational 2013 Hydrogen Production 1 Enhanced Oil Recovery
COFFEYVILLE GASIFICATION PLANT USA Operational 2013 Fertiliser Production 0.9 Enhanced Oil Recovery
PCS NITROGEN USA Operational 2013 Fertiliser Production 0.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
BOUNDARY DAM 3 CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE FACILITY Canada Operational 2014 Power Generation 1 Various
KARAMAY DUNHUA OIL TECHNOLOGY CCUS EOR China Operational 2015 Methanol Production 0.1 Enhanced Oil Recovery
QUEST Canada Operational 2015 Hydrogen Production 1.3 Dedicated Geological Storage
UTHMANIYAH CO2-EOR DEMONSTRATION Saudi Arabia Operational 2015 Natural Gas Processing 0.8 Enhanced Oil Recovery
ABU DHABI CCS (PHASE 1 BEING EMIRATES STEEL INDUSTRIES) United Arab Emirates Operational 2016 Iron and Steel Production 0.8 Enhanced Oil Recovery
ILLINOIS INDUSTRIAL CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Operational 2017 Ethanol Production 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
CNPC JILIN OIL FIELD CO2 EOR China Operational 2018 Natural Gas Processing 0.6 Enhanced Oil Recovery
GORGON CARBON DIOXIDE INJECTION Australia Operational 2019 Natural Gas Processing 4 Dedicated Geological Storage
QATAR LNG CCS Qatar Operational 2019 Natural Gas Processing 2.2 Dedicated Geological Storage
ALBERTA CARBON TRUNK LINE (ACTL) WITH NORTH WEST REDWATER PARTNERSHIP'S STURGEON REFINERY CO2 STREAM Canada Operational 2020 Oil Refining 1.6 Enhanced Oil Recovery
ALBERTA CARBON TRUNK LINE (ACTL) WITH NUTRIEN CO2 STREAM Canada Operational 2020 Fertiliser Production 0.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
ORCA Iceland Operational 2021 Direct Air Capture 0.004 Dedicated Geological Storage
GLACIER GAS PLANT MCCS Canada Operational 2022 Natural Gas Processing 0.2 Dedicated Geological Storage
SINOPEC QILU-SHENGLI CCUS China Operational 2022 Chemical Production 1 Enhanced Oil Recovery
RED TRAIL ENERGY CCS USA Operational 2022 Ethanol Production 0.18 Dedicated Geological Storage
CNOOC SOUTH CHINA SEA OFFSHORE CCS China In Construction 2023 Natural Gas Processing 0.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
GUODIAN TAIZHOU POWER STATION CARBON CAPTURE China In Construction 2023 Power Generation 0.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
SANTOS COOPER BASIN CCS PROJECT Australia In Construction 2023 Natural Gas Processing 1.7 Dedicated Geological Storage
MAMMOTH Iceland In Construction 2024 Direct Air Capture 0.03 Dedicated Geological Storage
NORCEM BREVIK - CEMENT PLANT Norway In Construction 2024 Cement Production 0.4 N/A
NORCEM BREVIK - SHIPPING ROUTE Norway In Construction 2024 Cement Production N/A
NORTHERN LIGHTS - STORAGE Norway In Construction 2024 Various Dedicated Geological Storage
OXY AND CARBON ENGINEERING DIRECT AIR CAPTURE AND EOR FACILITY USA In Construction 2024 Direct Air Capture 0.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
HAFSLUND OSLO CELSIO- KLEMETSRUD WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT Norway In Construction 2025 Waste Incineration 0.4 N/A
NORTH FIELD EAST PROJECT (NFE) CCS Qatar In Construction 2025 Natural Gas Processing 1 Under Evaluation
LOUISIANA CLEAN ENERGY COMPLEX USA In Construction 2026 Various 5 Dedicated Geological Storage
WABASH CO2 SEQUESTRATION USA Advanced Development 2022 Fertiliser Production 1.75 Dedicated Geological Storage
BRIDGEPORT ENERGY MOONIE CCUS PROJECT Australia Advanced Development 2023 Various 0.2 Enhanced Oil Recovery
HUANENG LONGDONG ENERGY BASE CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE China Advanced Development 2023 Power Generation 1.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
NORTHERN DELAWARE BASIN CCS USA Advanced Development 2023 Natural Gas Processing 0.03 Dedicated Geological Storage
ABERDEEN BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.14 Dedicated Geological Storage
AIR LIQUIDE REFINERY ROTTERDAM CCS Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Hydrogen Production 0.8 Dedicated Geological Storage
AIR PRODUCTS NET-ZERO HYDROGEN ENERGY COMPLEX Canada Advanced Development 2024 Hydrogen Production 3 N/A
AIR PRODUCTS REFINERY ROTTERDAM CCS Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Hydrogen Production Dedicated Geological Storage
ATKINSON BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.16 Dedicated Geological Storage
CASSELTON BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
CENTRAL CITY BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.33 Dedicated Geological Storage
EXXONMOBIL BENELUX REFINERY CCS Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Hydrogen Production Dedicated Geological Storage
FAIRMONT BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.34 Dedicated Geological Storage
FEDERATED CO-OPERATIVES LIMITED (ETHANOL) Canada Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
GALVA BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.11 Dedicated Geological Storage
GOLDFIELD BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.22 Dedicated Geological Storage
GRAND JUNCTION BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.34 Dedicated Geological Storage
GRANITE FALLS BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.18 Dedicated Geological Storage
HERON LAKE BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.19 Dedicated Geological Storage
HURON BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.09 Dedicated Geological Storage
LAMBERTON BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.16 Dedicated Geological Storage
LAWLER BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.57 Dedicated Geological Storage
MARCUS BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.46 Dedicated Geological Storage
MASON CITY BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.34 Dedicated Geological Storage
MERRILL BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.16 Dedicated Geological Storage
MINA BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.4 Dedicated Geological Storage
NEVADA BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.26 Dedicated Geological Storage
NORFOLK BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.15 Dedicated Geological Storage
ONIDA BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.23 Dedicated Geological Storage
OTTER TAIL BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.17 Dedicated Geological Storage
PLAINVIEW BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.32 Dedicated Geological Storage
POLARIS CARBON STORAGE Norway Advanced Development 2024 Hydrogen Production Dedicated Geological Storage
PORTHOS - COMPRESSOR STATION Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Various N/A
PORTHOS - OFFSHORE PIPELINE Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Various N/A
PORTHOS - ONSHORE PIPELINE Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Various N/A
PORTHOS - STORAGE Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Various Dedicated Geological Storage
REDFIELD BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.17 Dedicated Geological Storage
SAN JUAN GENERATING STATION CARBON CAPTURE USA Advanced Development 2024 Power Generation 6 Dedicated Geological Storage
SHELL REFINERY ROTTERDAM CCS Netherlands Advanced Development 2024 Hydrogen Production 1.4 Dedicated Geological Storage
SHENANDOAH BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.24 Dedicated Geological Storage
SIOUX CENTER BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.19 Dedicated Geological Storage
STEAMBOAT ROCK BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.23 Dedicated Geological Storage
SUMMIT PIPELINE USA Advanced Development 2024 Bioenergy Dedicated Geological Storage
SUPERIOR BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.17 Dedicated Geological Storage
WATERTOWN BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.37 Dedicated Geological Storage
WENTWORTH BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.26 Dedicated Geological Storage
WOOD RIVER BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.35 Dedicated Geological Storage
YORK BIOREFINERY CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE USA Advanced Development 2024 Ethanol Production 0.14 Dedicated Geological Storage
PROJECT GREENSAND Denmark Advanced Development 2025 Various Dedicated Geological Storage
ABU DHABI CCS PHASE 2: NATURAL GAS PROCESSING PLANT United Arab Emirates Advanced Development 2025 Natural Gas Processing 2.3 Enhanced Oil Recovery
COPENHILL (AMAGER BAKKE) WASTE TO ENERGY CCS Denmark Advanced Development 2025 Waste Incineration 0.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
COYOTE CLEAN POWER PROJECT USA Advanced Development 2025 Power Generation 0.86 Under Evaluation
EAST COAST CLUSTER United Kingdom Advanced Development 2025 Various 27 Dedicated Geological Storage
GHASHA CONCESSION FIELDS United Arab Emirates Advanced Development 2025 Natural Gas Processing Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
HAFSLUND OSLO CELSIO- TRUCK ROUTE Norway Advanced Development 2025 Waste Incineration N/A
LAKE CHARLES METHANOL USA Advanced Development 2025 Chemical Production 4 Under Evaluation
ONE EARTH ENERGY FACILITY CARBON CAPTURE USA Advanced Development 2025 Ethanol Production 0.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
STOCKHOLM EXERGI BECCS Sweden Advanced Development 2025 Bioenergy 0.8 Dedicated Geological Storage
STOCKHOLM EXERGI BECCS - SHIPPING ROUTE Sweden Advanced Development 2025 Bioenergy N/A
CODA SHIPPING Iceland Advanced Development 2026 Various N/A
CODA TERMINAL ONSHORE INFRASTRUCTURE Iceland Advanced Development 2026 Various N/A
CODA TERMINAL PIPELINE Iceland Advanced Development 2026 Various N/A
CODA TERMINAL STORAGE Iceland Advanced Development 2026 Various Dedicated Geological Storage
FEDERATED CO-OPERATIVES LIMITED (REFINERY) Canada Advanced Development 2026 Oil Refining 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
PTTEP ARTHIT CCS* Thailand Advanced Development 2026 Natural Gas Processing 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
BAYU-UNDAN CCS Timor-Leste Advanced Development 2027 Natural Gas Processing 10 Dedicated Geological Storage
HUMBER ZERO - VPI IMMINGHAM POWER PLANT CCS United Kingdom Advanced Development 2027 Power Generation Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
HUMBER ZERO - PHILLIPS 66 HUMBER REFINERY CCS United Kingdom Advanced Development 2028 Hydrogen Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ANTWERP@C - BASF ANTWERP CCS Belgium Advanced Development 2030 Chemical Production 1.42 Dedicated Geological Storage
JAMES M. BARRY ELECTRIC GENERATING PLANT CCS PROJECT USA Advanced Development 2030 Power Generation Under Evaluation Under Evaluation
PROJECT TUNDRA USA Advanced Development 2025 - 2026 Power Generation 3.6 Dedicated Geological Storage
CAL CAPTURE USA Advanced Development Mid 2020s Power Generation 1.4 Enhanced Oil Recovery
GERALD GENTLEMAN STATION CARBON CAPTURE USA Advanced Development Mid 2020s Power Generation 4.3 Under Evaluation
PLANT DANIEL CARBON CAPTURE USA Advanced Development Mid 2020s Power Generation 1.8 Under Evaluation
PRAIRIE STATE GENERATING STATION CARBON CAPTURE USA Advanced Development Mid 2020s Power Generation 6 Dedicated Geological Storage
DEER PARK ENERGY CENTRE CCS PROJECT USA Advanced Development N/A Power Generation 5 Dedicated Geological Storage
FARLEY DAC PROJECT USA Advanced Development Under Evaluation Direct Air Capture Under Evaluation Under Evaluation
MUSTANG STATION OF GOLDEN SPREAD ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE CARBON CAPTURE USA Advanced Development Under Evaluation Power Generation 1.5 Under Evaluation
SOUTHEAST SASKATCHEWAN CCUS HUB - STORAGE Canada Advanced Development Under Evaluation Various Dedicated Geological Storage
PETRONAS KASAWARI GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT PROJECT Malaysia Early Development 2023 Natural Gas Processing Under Evaluation Under Evaluation
MIDWEST AGENERGY BLUE FLINT ETHANOL CCS USA Early Development 2022 Ethanol Production 0.18 Dedicated Geological Storage
PROJECT INTERSEQT - HEREFORD ETHANOL PLANT USA Early Development 2023 Ethanol Production 0.35 Dedicated Geological Storage
PROJECT INTERSEQT - PLAINVIEW ETHANOL PLANT USA Early Development 2023 Ethanol Production 0.35 Dedicated Geological Storage
AEMETIS USA Early Development 2024 Ethanol Production and Fertiliser Production 2 Dedicated Geological Storage
CALEDONIA CLEAN ENERGY United Kingdom Early Development 2024 Power Generation 3 Dedicated Geological Storage
HYDROGEN 2 MAGNUM (H2M) Netherlands Early Development 2024 Power Generation 2 Dedicated Geological Storage
NORTHERN LIGHTS - PIPELINE Norway Early Development 2024 Various N/A
PROJECT POUAKAI HYDROGEN PRODUCTION WITH CCS New Zealand Early Development 2024 Various 1 Under Evaluation
YARA SLUISKIL Netherlands Early Development 2025 Fertiliser Production 0.8 Dedicated Geological Storage
ACORN HYDROGEN United Kingdom Early Development 2025 Hydrogen Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
BAYOU BEND CCS USA Early Development 2025 Various Under Evaluation
CARBON TERRAVAULT I PROJECT USA Early Development 2025 Under Evaluation 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
CLEAN ENERGY SYSTEMS CARBON NEGATIVE ENERGY PLANT - CENTRAL VALLEY USA Early Development 2025 Power Generation and Hydrogen Production 0.32 Dedicated Geological Storage
DRY FORK INTEGRATED COMMERCIAL CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) USA Early Development 2025 Power Generation 3 Dedicated Geological Storage
FORTUM OSLO VARME - SHIPPING ROUTE Norway Early Development 2025 Waste Incineration N/A
ILLINOIS ALLAM-FETVEDT CYCLE POWER PLANT USA Early Development 2025 Power Generation 1 N/A
MENDOTA BECCS USA Early Development 2025 Bioenergy 0.3 Dedicated Geological Storage
NET ZERO TEESSIDE - CCGT FACILITY United Kingdom Early Development 2025 Power Generation Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
NEXTDECADE RIO GRANDE LNG CCS USA Early Development 2025 Natural Gas Processing 5.5 Under Evaluation
PREEM REFINERY CCS Sweden Early Development 2025 Hydrogen Production 0.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
SOUTH EAST AUSTRALIA CARBON CAPTURE HUB Australia Early Development 2025 Natural Gas Processing 2 Dedicated Geological Storage
STANLOW REFINERY LOW CARBON HYDROGEN PLANT United Kingdom Early Development 2025 Oil Refining 0.6 N/A
THE ILLINOIS CLEAN FUELS PROJECT USA Early Development 2025 Chemical Production 8.13 Dedicated Geological Storage
VELOCYS’ BAYOU FUELS NEGATIVE EMISSION PROJECT USA Early Development 2025 Chemical Production 0.5 Dedicated Geological Storage
ACORN DIRECT AIR CAPTURE FACILITY United Kingdom Early Development 2026 Direct Air Capture 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
ADRIATIC BLUE - ENI HYDROGEN CCS Italy Early Development 2026 Hydrogen Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ADRIATIC BLUE - ENI POWER CCS Italy Early Development 2026 Power Generation Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
CINFRACAP - PIPELINE Sweden Early Development 2026 Various N/A
CINFRACAP - SHIPPING ROUTE Sweden Early Development 2026 Various N/A
DELTA CORRIDOR PIPELINE NETWORK Netherlands Early Development 2026 Various N/A
HYNET NORTH WEST - HANSON CEMENT CCS United Kingdom Early Development 2026 Cement Production 0.8 Dedicated Geological Storage
NORTHERN GAS NETWORK H21 NORTH OF ENGLAND United Kingdom Early Development 2026 Hydrogen Production Dedicated Geological Storage
REPSOL SAKAKEMANG CARBON CAPTURE AND INJECTION Indonesia Early Development 2026 Natural Gas Processing 2 Dedicated Geological Storage
INPEX CCS PROJECT DARWIN Australia Early Development 2026 Natural Gas Processing 7 Dedicated Geological Storage
DRAX BECCS PROJECT United Kingdom Early Development 2027 Power Generation 8 Dedicated Geological Storage
G2 NET-ZERO LNG USA Early Development 2027 Natural Gas Processing 4 Under Evaluation
H2NORTHEAST United Kingdom Early Development 2027 Hydrogen Production
KILLINGHOLME POWER STATION United Kingdom Early Development 2027 Hydrogen Production Under Evaluation N/A
NET ZERO TEESSIDE – BP H2TEESSIDE United Kingdom Early Development 2027 Hydrogen Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
NET ZERO TEESSIDE - SUEZ WASTE TO ENERGY CCS United Kingdom Early Development 2027 Waste Incineration Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ZERO CARBON HUMBER - KEADY 3 CCS POWER STATION United Kingdom Early Development 2027 Power Generation Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
DIAMOND VAULT CCS USA Early Development 2028 Power Generation Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ERVIA CORK CCS Ireland Early Development 2028 Power Generation and Refining Dedicated Geological Storage
K6 France Early Development 2028 Cement Production 0.8 Under Evaluation
SUKOWATI CCUS Indonesia Early Development 2028 Oil Refining 1.4 Enhanced Oil Recovery
ANTWERP@C – BOREALIS ANTWERP CCS Belgium Early Development 2030 Chemical Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ANTWERP@C - EXXONMOBIL ANTWERP REFINERY CCS Belgium Early Development 2030 Chemical Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ANTWERP@C – INEOS ANTWERP CCS Belgium Early Development 2030 Chemical Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
DAVE JOHNSTON PLANT CARBON CAPTURE USA Early Development 2020s Power Generation Under Evaluation Enhanced Oil Recovery
SINOPEC SHENGLI POWER PLANT CCS China Early Development 2020s Power Generation 1 Enhanced Oil Recovery
KOREA-CCS 1 & 2 South Korea Early Development 2020's Power Generation 1 Dedicated Geological Storage
HYDROGEN TO HUMBER SALTEND United Kingdom Early Development 2026-2027 Hydrogen Production Under Evaluation Dedicated Geological Storage
ACORN United Kingdom Early Development Mid 2020s Various 5 Dedicated Geological Storage
BARENTS BLUE Norway Early Development Mid 2020s Fertiliser Production 2 Dedicated Geological Storage
CAROLINE CARBON CAPTURE POWER COMPLEX Canada Early Development Mid 2020s Power Generation 3 Dedicated Geological Storage
HYNET NORTH WEST United Kingdom Early Development Mid 2020s Hydrogen Production Dedicated Geological Storage
LAFARGEHOLCIM CEMENT CARBON CAPTURE USA Early Development Mid 2020s Cement Production 2 Under Evaluation
NAUTICOL ENERGY BLUE METHANOL Canada Early Development Mid 2020s Methanol Production 1 Enhanced Oil Recovery
NET ZERO TEESSIDE - NET POWER PLANT United Kingdom Early Development Mid 2020s Power Generation Under Evaluation Under Evaluation
PAU CENTRAL SULAWESI CLEAN FUEL AMMONIA PRODUCTION WITH CCUS Indonesia Early Development Mid 2020s Fertiliser Production 2 Under Evaluation
POLARIS CCS PROJECT Canada Early Development Mid 2020s Hydrogen Production 0.75 Dedicated Geological Storage
SASKATCHEWAN NET POWER PLANT Canada Early Development Mid 2020s Power Generation 0.95 Under Evaluation
SHARC PROJECT Finland Early Development Mid 2020s Hydrogen Production 0.4 N/A
BORG CO2 Norway Early Development Under Evaluation Various 0.63 N/A
BURRUP CCS HUB Australia Early Development Under Evaluation Under Evaluation 5 Under Evaluation
CYCLUS POWER GENERATION USA Early Development Under Evaluation Bioenergy 2 Under Evaluation
MEDWAY HUB PIPELINE United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Power Generation and Hydrogen Production N/A
MEDWAY POWER STATIONS United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Power Generation 7.6 Dedicated Geological Storage
HYNET HYDROGEN PRODUCTION PROJECT (HPP) United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Hydrogen Production
ISLE OF GRAIN LNG TERMINAL United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Power Generation
MEDWAY HUB - ESMOND AND FORBES CARBON STORAGE United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Power Generation Dedicated Geological Storage
MEDWAY HUB SHIPPING United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Power Generation
SEMPRA ENERGY HACKBERRY CCS PROJECT USA Early Development Under Evaluation Natural Gas Processing Under Evaluation Under Evaluation
WHITETAIL CLEAN ENERGY United Kingdom Early Development Under Evaluation Power Generation Under Evaluation
LOST CABIN GAS PLANT USA Operation Suspended 2013 Natural Gas Processing 0.9 Enhanced Oil Recovery
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